mysql -u root -p 解释88bf必发娱乐

如果你明确指定了-p或者–password的值,那么-p或者–password和密码值之间是不能有空格的。

比较大的表需要用优化的dump以节省内存:
mysqldump –opt database > backup-file.sql

一般在使用中,我们会省略-h参数,mysql会自动默认为本地连接

mysqldump工具有大量的选项,部分选项如下表:

  If you use
-p or --password option
and specify the password value, there must be no
space
 between -p or --password= and
the password following it.

       It is also possible to set variables by using
       –set-variable=var_name=value or -O var_name=value syntax.
However,
       this syntax is deprecated as of MySQL 4.0.

for password options, the password value is optional:

          Quote database, table, and column names within ‘‘’ characters.
If
          the server SQL mode includes the ANSI_QUOTES option, names
are
          quoted within ‘”‘ characters. As of MySQL 4.1.1, –quote-names
is on
          by default. It can be disabled with –skip-quote-names, but
this
          option should be given after any option such as –compatible
that
          may enable –quote-names.

  If you use
-p or --password option
but do not specify the password value, the client program prompts you to
enter the password. The password is not displayed as you enter it. This
is more secure than giving the password on the command line. Other users
on your system may be able to see a password specified on the command
line by executing a command such as ps
auxw

       Or like this:

第一个是全拼,第二个是第一个的缩写

  -t or -no-create- info

具体就是:对于password选项,此选项是可选的

       ·  –port=port_num, -P port_num

如果你使用了-p或者–password选项但是没有给出password值,客户端程序提示您输入密码。

          Include all MySQL-specific table options in the CREATE TABLE
          statements. Before MySQL 4.1.2, use –all instead.

mysql –host=localhost –user=myname –password=password
mydb

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 a –where “条件语句” –no-建表>
路径
mysqldump -uroot -p1234 dbname a –where “tag=’88′” –no-create-info>
c:\a.sql

当然命令行连接数据库还有其它参数,这里主要介绍几个经常使用的,其它请参考https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.5/en/connecting.html

          Compress all information sent between the client and the
server if
          both support compression.

mysql -h localhost
-u myname -ppassword
mydb

          For each table, surround the INSERT statements with /*!40000
ALTER
          TABLE tbl_name DISABLE KEYS */; and /*!40000 ALTER TABLE
tbl_name
          ENABLE KEYS */; statements. This makes loading the dump file
into a
          MySQL 4.0 or newer server faster because the indexes are
created
          after all rows are inserted. This option is effective for
MyISAM
          tables only.

For mysql, the first
nonoption argument is taken as the name of the default database. If
there is no such option, mysql does not select a default
database.

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 a -w “sql条件” –lock-all-tables
> 路径

这是客户端连接mysql服务器的指令,比较全的写法是下面两种

          The connection protocol to use. Added in MySQL 4.1.

 

          Use complete INSERT statements that include column names.

使用此命令首先确保你的mysql运行环境已经搭建好

       ·  –flush-logs, -F

这是我从mysql官方文档拷过来的内容

          This option causes the binary log position and filename to
be
          written to the output. This option requires the RELOAD
privilege and
          the binary log must be enabled. If the option value is equal
to 1,
          the position and filename are written to the dump output in
the form
          of a CHANGE MASTER statement that makes a slave server start
from
          the correct position in the master’s binary logs if you use
this SQL
          dump of the master to set up a slave. If the option value is
equal
          to 2, the CHANGE MASTER statement is written as an SQL
comment. This
          is the default action if value is omitted.  value may be given
as of
          MySQL 4.1.8; before that, do not specify an option value.

对于MySQL,第一个非选项参数被当作默认数据库的名称。如果没有这样的选项,MySQL就不会选择默认数据库。

       shell> mysqldump –all-databases –master-data=2 >
all_databases.sql
       or
       shell> mysqldump –all-databases –flush-logs –master-data=2
> all_databases.sql

也就是说在命令行中,你的mysql密码和-p或者–password参数之间有空格,mysql会认为你输入的是登录mysql后自动选择的数据库,而不是你所期望的密码

       ·  –delayed-insert

还有一点就是各个参数之间是否有空格的问题,-u后面可以有也可以省略空格,对于-p后面的参数我要单独说一下

       ·  –allow-keywords

mysqldump按条件导入:

          Use multiple-row INSERT syntax that include several VALUES
lists.
          This results in a smaller dump file and speeds up inserts when
the
          file is reloaded.

       ·  –debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

mysqldump还原:

       shell> mysqldump –opt db_name | mysql –host=remote_host -C
db_name

          Do not write any row information for the table. This is very
useful
          if you want to get a dump of only the structure for a table.

  -T path or -tab = path
这个选项将会创建两个文件,一个文件包含DDL语句或者表创建语句,另一个文件包含数据。DDL文件被命名为table_name.sql,数据文件被命名为table_name.txt.路径名是存放这两个文件的目录。目录必须已经存在,并且命令的使用者有对文件的特权。
  
  -w “WHERE Clause” or -where = “Where clause “

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 < 路径

       shell> mysqldump [options] db_name [tables]
       shell> mysqldump [options] –databases DB1 [DB2 DB3…]
       shell> mysqldump [options] –all-databases

       shell> mysql db_name < backup-file.sql

          This option is shorthand; it is the same as specifying
          –add-drop-table –add-locks –create-options –disable-keys
          –extended-insert –lock-tables –quick –set-charset. It
should
          give you a fast dump operation and produce a dump file that
can be
          reloaded into a MySQL server quickly.  As of MySQL 4.1, –opt
is on
          by default, but can be disabled with –skip-opt. To disable
only
          certain of the options enabled by –opt, use their –skip
forms; for
          example, –skip-add-drop-table or –skip-quick.

          These options are used with the -T option and have the same
meaning
          as the corresponding clauses for LOAD DATA INFILE. See Section
2.5,
          “LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax”.

          This option requires a server version of 4.1.0 or higher. With
older
          servers, it does nothing.

复制代码 代码如下:

       ·  –opt

          Display version information and exit.

       ·  –add-locks

       ·  –version, -V

       The most common use of mysqldump is probably for making a backup
of an
       entire database:

mysqldump导出表:

       ·  –hex-blob

       ·  –tab=path, -T path

mysqldump备份:

  选项/Option 作用/Action Performed

       For point-in-time recovery (also known as “roll-forward”, when
you need
       to restore an old backup and replay the changes which happened
since
       that backup), it is often useful to rotate the binary log (see
       Section 8.4, “The Binary Log”) or at least know the binary log
       coordinates to which the dump corresponds:

  –add-drop-table

       ·  –lock-tables, -l

       shell> mysqldump –all-databases –single-transaction >
all_databases.sql

          Direct output to a given file. This option should be used on
          Windows, because it prevents newline ‘n’ characters from
being
          converted to ‘rn’ carriage return/newline sequences.

       ·  –no-create-db, -n

          Deprecated, renamed to –lock-all-tables in MySQL 4.1.8.

          The MySQL username to use when connecting to the server.

       ·  –default-character-set=charset

       ·  –databases, -B

       ·  –quick, -q

       ·  –create-options

       Before MySQL 4.1.2, out-of-range numeric values such as -inf and
inf,
       as well as NaN (not-a-number) values are dumped by mysqldump as
NULL.
       You can see this using the following sample table:

          Produce output that is more compatible with other database
systems
          or with older MySQL servers. The value of name can be ansi,
          mysql323, mysql40, postgresql, oracle, mssql, db2, maxdb,
          no_key_options, no_table_options, or no_field_options.
To use
          several values, separate them by commas. These values have the
same
          meaning as the corresponding options for setting the server
SQL
          mode. See the section called “THE SERVER SQL MODE”.

DESCRIPTION
       The mysqldump client can be used to dump a database or a
collection of
       databases for backup or for transferring the data to another SQL
server
       (not necessarily a MySQL server). The dump contains SQL
statements to
       create the table and/or populate the table.

使用mysqldump
mysqldump -u root -p your-new-password databasename [tablename] >
db.sql

       ·  –disable-keys, -K

       ·  –result-file=file, -r file

       If you do not name any tables or use the –databases or
–all-databases
       option, entire databases are dumped.

          The socket file to use when connecting to localhost (which is
the
          default host).

          Do not write CREATE TABLE statements that re-create each
dumped
          table.

  –delayed-insert 在INSERT命令中加入DELAY选项

       ·  –quote-names, -Q

          Examples:

          Insert rows using INSERT DELAYED statements.

          The maximum size of the buffer for client/server
communication. The
          value of the variable can be up to 16MB before MySQL 4.0, and
up to
          1GB from MySQL 4.0 on.

       ·  –verbose, -v

       ·  –fields-terminated-by=…, –fields-enclosed-by=…,
          –fields-optionally-enclosed-by=…,
–fields-escaped-by=…,
          –lines-terminated-by=…

          This option does not guarantee compatibility with other
servers. It
          only enables those SQL mode values that are currently
available for
          making dump output more compatible. For example,
–compatible=oracle
          does not map data types to Oracle types or use Oracle
comment
          syntax.

       ·  –all-databases, -A

  –opt
此选项将打开所有会提高文件导出速度和创造一个可以更快导入的文件的选项。

       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual,
which
       may already be installed locally and which is also available
online at
       http://dev.mysql.com/doc/.

       ·  –comments[={0|1}]

       ·  –add-drop-table

  -q or -quick
这个选项使得MySQL不会把整个导出的内容读入内存再执行导出,而是在读到的时候就写入导文件中。

          If set to 0, suppresses additional information in the dump
file such
          as program version, server version, and host.  –skip-comments
has
          the same effect as –comments=0. The default value is 1,
which
          includes the extra information. Added in MySQL 4.0.17.

       ·  –no-data, -d

          To dump big tables, you should combine this option with
–quick.

       mysqldump supports the following options:

       ·  max_allowed_packet

       If you run mysqldump without the –quick or –opt option,
mysqldump
       loads the whole result set into memory before dumping the result.
This
       probably is a problem if you are dumping a big database. As of
MySQL
       4.1, –opt is enabled by default, but can be disabled with
–skip-opt.

          Add a DROP DATABASE statement before each CREATE DATABASE
statement.
          Added in MySQL 4.1.13.

       ·  –compress, -C

       ·  –extended-insert, -e

  这个选项使的mysqldump命令不创建CREATE
TABLE语句,这个选项在您只需要数据而不需要DDL(数据库定义语句)时很方便。
  
  -d or -no-data 这个选项使的mysqldump命令不创建INSERT语句。

          Dump several databases. Normally, mysqldump treats the first
name
          argument on the command line as a database name and following
names
          as table names. With this option, it treats all name arguments
as
          database names.  CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS db_name and
USE
          db_name statements are included in the output before each
new
          database.

          Allow creation of column names that are keywords. This works
by
          prefixing each column name with the table name.

       ·  –socket=path, -S path

          The –single-transaction option was added in MySQL 4.0.2.
This
          option is mutually exclusive with the –lock-tables option,
because
          LOCK TABLES causes any pending transactions to be committed
          implicitly.

       The simultaneous use of –master-data and –single-transaction
works as
       of MySQL 4.1.8. It provides a convenient way to make an online
backup
       suitable for point-in-time recovery if tables are stored in the
InnoDB
       storage engine.

       ·  –user=user_name, -u user_name

          Produce less verbose output. This option suppresses comments
and
          enables the –skip-add-drop-table, –no-set-names,
          –skip-disable-keys, and –skip-add-locks options. Added in
MySQL
          4.1.2.

参数详解:

mysql -uroot -p1234 db1 < c:\a.txt

       ·  net_buffer_length

       ·  –compact

          Surround each table dump with LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES
          statements. This results in faster inserts when the dump file
is
          reloaded. See Section 2.13, “Speed of INSERT Statements”.

       shell> mysqldump –opt db_name > backup-file.sql

       ·  –no-create-info, -t

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 < 路径

          Produce tab-separated data files. For each dumped table,
mysqldump
          creates a tbl_name.sql file that contains the CREATE TABLE
statement
          that creates the table, and a tbl_name.txt file that contains
its
          data. The option value is the directory in which to write the
files.

          Add SET NAMES default_character_set to the output. This
option is
          enabled by default. To suppress the SET NAMES statement, use
          –skip-set-charset. This option was added in MySQL 4.1.2.

  这个选项使得mysqldump命令给每一个产生INSERT语句加上列(field)的名字。当把数据导出导另外一个数据库时这个选项很有用。

          Verbose mode. Print out more information on what the program
does.

       mysql> CREATE TABLE t (f DOUBLE);
       mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(1e+111111111111111111111);
       mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(-1e111111111111111111111);
       mysql> SELECT f FROM t;
       +——+
       | f    |
       +——+
       |  inf |
       | -inf |
       +——+

       shell> mysqldump –databases db_name1 [db_name2 …] >
my_databases.sql

       ·  –first-slave, -x

          By default, the .txt data files are formatted using tab
characters
          between column values and a newline at the end of each line.
The
          format can be specified explicitly using the –fields-xxx
and
          –lines–xxx options.

       For this table, mysqldump produces the following data output:

  –full 这个选项把附加信息也加到CREATE TABLE的语句中

       The significance of this behavior is that if you dump and restore
the
       table, the new table has contents that differ from the original
       contents. This problem is fixed as of MySQL 4.1.2; you cannot
insert
       inf in the table, so this mysqldump behavior is only relevant
when you
       deal with old servers.

          Please note that when dumping multiple databases,
–lock-tables
          locks tables for each database separately. So, this option
does not
          guarantee that the tables in the dump file are logically
consistent
          between databases. Tables in different databases may be dumped
in
          completely different states.

       ·  –force, -f

  这个选项将会在每一个表的前面加上DROP TABLE IF
EXISTS语句,这样可以保证导回MySQL数据库的时候不会出错,因为每次导回的时候,都会首先检查表是否存在,存在就删除

          Add a DROP TABLE statement before each CREATE TABLE statement.

复制代码 代码如下:

       ·  –xml, -X

       mysqldump is also very useful for populating databases by copying
data
       from one MySQL server to another:

  –add-locks

          See the description for the –comments option.

          Lock all tables across all databases. This is achieved by
acquiring
          a global read lock for the duration of the whole dump. This
option
          automatically turns off –single-transaction and
–lock-tables.
          Added in MySQL 4.1.8.

       ·  –set-charset

       ·  –host=host_name, -h host_name

          The –master-data option turns on –lock-all-tables, unless
          –single-transaction also is specified (in which case, a
global read
          lock is only acquired a short time at the beginning of the
dump. See
          also the description for –single-transaction. In all cases,
any
          action on logs happens at the exact moment of the dump. This
option
          automatically turns off –lock-tables.

mysqldump按条件导出:

SYNOPSIS
       mysqldump [options] [db_name [tbl_name …]]

  -f or -force 使用这个选项,即使有错误发生,仍然继续导出

复制代码 代码如下:

       To get a list of the options your version of mysqldump
supports,
       execute mysqldump –help.

       If you are using a recent copy of the mysqldump program to
generate a
       dump to be reloaded into a very old MySQL server, you should not
use
       the –opt or -e options.

          On a master replication server, delete the binary logs after
          performing the dump operation. This option automatically
enables
          –first-slave before MySQL 4.1.8 and enables –master-data
          thereafter. It was added in MySQL 3.23.57 (for MySQL 3.23) and
MySQL
          4.0.13 (for MySQL 4.0).

案例:

       If you want to dump all databases, use the –all-databases
option:

          Note: This option should be used only when mysqldump is run on
the
          same machine as the mysqld server. You must have the FILE
privilege,
          and the server must have permission to write files in the
directory
          that you specify.

       It is possible to dump several databases with one command:

http://www.bkjia.com/Mysql/763489.htmlwww.bkjia.comtruehttp://www.bkjia.com/Mysql/763489.htmlTechArticlemysqldump备份: 复制代码 代码如下: mysqldump
-u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 a -w “sql条件” –lock-all-tables 路径
mysqldump还原: 复制代码 代码如…

       ·  –delete-master-logs

          Override the –databases or -B option. All arguments following
the
          option are regarded as table names.

NAME
       mysqldump – a database backup program

       ·  –compatible=name

       —
       — Dumping data for table ‘t‘
       —
       INSERT INTO t VALUES (NULL);
       INSERT INTO t VALUES (NULL);

复制代码 代码如下:

       ·  –single-transaction

       ·  –lock-all-tables, -x

       ·  –master-data[=value]

          Dump only records php/select”>selected by the given WHERE
condition. Note that
          quotes around the condition are mandatory if it contains
spaces or
          characters that are special to your command interpreter.

          Dump data from the MySQL server on the given host. The default
host
          is localhost.

          Display a help message and exit.

          The initial size of the buffer for client/server
communication. When
          creating multiple-row-insert statements (as with option
          –extended-insert or –opt), mysqldump creates rows up to
          net_buffer_length length. If you increase this variable, you
should
          also ensure that the net_buffer_length variable in the MySQL
server
          is at least this large.

          Lock all tables before starting the dump. The tables are
locked with
          READ LOCAL to allow concurrent inserts in the case of MyISAM
tables.
          For transactional tables such as InnoDB and BDB,
          –single-transaction is a much better option, because it does
not
          need to lock the tables at all.

       shell> mysql -e “source /path-to-backup/backup-file.sql”
db_name

          Use charset as the default character set. See Section 7.1,
“The
          Character Set Used for Data and Sorting”. If not specified,
          mysqldump from MySQL 4.1.2 or later uses utf8, and earlier
versions
          use latin1.

          Dump all tables in all databases. This is the same as using
the
          –databases option and naming all the databases on the command
line.

          This option is useful for dumping large tables. It forces
mysqldump
          to retrieve rows for a table from the server a row at a time
rather
          than retrieving the entire row set and buffering it in memory
before
          writing it out.

       ·  –add-drop-database

          “–where=user=’jimf'”
          “-wuserid>1”
          “-wuserid<1”

复制代码 代码如下:

          Continue even if an SQL error occurs during a table dump.

       For more information on making backups, see Section 6.1,
“Database
       Backups”.

       You can also set the following variables by using
–var_name=value
       options:

在您只需要DDL语句时,可以使用这个选项。

       ·  –complete-insert, -c

       ·  –help, -?

       ·  –password[=password], -p[password]

  -F or -flush-logs
使用这个选项,在执行导出之前将会刷新MySQL服务器的log.

       ·  –skip-comments

案例:mysqldump -uroot -p sqlhk9 a –no-data

          This option issues a BEGIN SQL statement before dumping data
from
          the server. It is useful only with transactional tables such
as
          InnoDB and BDB, because then it dumps the consistent state of
the
          database at the time when BEGIN was issued without blocking
any
          applications.

       ·  –protocol={TCP | SOCKET | PIPE | MEMORY}

          This option suppresses the CREATE DATABASE /*!32312 IF NOT
EXISTS*/
          db_name statements that are otherwise included in the output
if the
          –databases or –all-databases option is given.

       ·  –where=�����where-condition�����, -w
�����where-condition�����

  -l or -lock-tables 使用这个选项,导出表的时候服务器将会给表加锁。

          Flush the MySQL server log files before starting the dump.
This
          option requires the RELOAD privilege. Note that if you use
this
          option in combination with the –all-databases (or -A) option,
the
          logs are flushed for each database dumped. The exception is
when
          using –lock-all-tables or –master-data: In this case, the
logs are
          flushed only once, corresponding to the moment that all tables
are
          locked. If you want your dump and the log flush to happen at
exactly
          the same moment, you should use –flush-logs together with
either
          –lock-all-tables or –master-data.

       There are three general ways to invoke mysqldump:

       shell> mysqldump –all-databases > all_databases.sql

          The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use
the
          short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the
option
          and the password. If you omit the password value following
the
          –password or -p option on the command line, you are prompted
for
          one.

       If tables are stored in the InnoDB storage engine, mysqldump
provides a
       way of making an online backup of these (see command below).
This
       backup just needs to acquire a global read lock on all tables
(using
       FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK) at the beginning of the dump. As
soon as
       this lock has been acquired, the binary log coordinates are read
and
       lock is released. So if and only if one long updating statement
is
       running when the FLUSH…  is issued, the MySQL server may get
stalled
       until that long statement finishes, and then the dump becomes
       lock-free. So if the MySQL server receives only short (in the
sense of
       “short execution time”) updating statements, even if there are
plenty
       of them, the initial lock period should not be noticeable.

          The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

       ·  –tables

          When using this option, you should keep in mind that only
InnoDB
          tables are dumped in a consistent state. For example, any
MyISAM or
          HEAP tables dumped while using this option may still change
state.

       If you are doing a backup on the server, and your tables all are
MyISAM
       tables, you could consider using the mysqlhotcopy instead since
faster
       backups and faster restores can be accomplished with the latter.
See
       mysqlhotcopy(1).

          Write a debugging log. The debug_options string is often
          ´d:t:o,file_name’.

SEE ALSO
       isamchk(1), isamlog(1), msql2mysql(1), myisamchk(1),
myisamlog(1),
       myisampack(1), mysql(1), mysql.server(1), mysql_config(1),
       mysql_fix_privilege_tables(1), mysql_zap(1),
mysqlaccess(1),
       mysqladmin(1), mysqlbinlog(1), mysqlcheck(1), mysqld(1),
       mysqld_multi(1), mysqld_safe(1), mysqlhotcopy(1),
mysqlimport(1),
       mysqlshow(1), pack_isam(1), perror(1), replace(1),
safe_mysqld(1)

          Write dump output as well-formed XML.

          Dump binary string columns using hexadecimal notation (for
example,
          ´abc’ becomes 0x616263). The affected columns are BINARY,
VARBINARY,
          and BLOB in MySQL 4.1 and up, and CHAR BINARY, VARCHAR BINARY,
and
          BLOB in MySQL 4.0. This option was added in MySQL 4.0.23 and
4.1.8.

AUTHOR
       MySQL AB (http://www.mysql.com/).  This software comes with no
       warranty.

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 表

       You can read the dump file back into the server like this:

参考国外网站

  这个选项会在INSERT语句中捆上一个LOCK TABLE和UNLOCK
TABLE语句。这就防止在这些记录被再次导入数据库时其他用户对表进行的操作
  
  -c or – complete_insert

复制代码 代码如下: